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Friday, September 18, 2020
Full Text: Treaty of Peace, Diplomatic Relations and Full Normalization Between the United Arab Emirates and the State of Israel

Abraham Accords Peace Agreement: Treaty of Peace, Diplomatic Relations and
Full Normalization Between the United Arab Emirates and the State of Israel

The Government of the United Arab Emirates and the Government of the State
of Israel (hereinafter, the "Parties")

Aspiring to realize the vision of a Middle East region that is stable,
peaceful and prosperous, for the benefit of all States and peoples in the

Desiring to establish peace, diplomatic and friendly relations, co-operation
and full normalization of ties between them and their peoples, in accordance
with this Treaty, and to chart together a new path to unlock the vast
potential of their countries and of the region;

Reaffirming the "Joint Statement of the United States, the State of Israel,
and the United Arab Emirates" (the "Abraham Accords"), dated 13 August 2020;

Believing that the further development of friendly relations meets the
interests of lasting peace in the Middle East and that challenges can only
be effectively addressed by cooperation and not by conflict;

Determined to ensure lasting peace, stability, security and prosperity for
both their States and to develop and enhance their dynamic and innovative

Reaffirming their shared commitment to normalize relations and promote
stability through diplomatic engagement, increased economic cooperation and
other close coordination;

Reaffirming also their shared belief that the establishment of peace and
full normalization between them can help transform the Middle East by
spurring economic growth, enhancing technological innovation and forging
closer people-to-people relations;

Recognizing that the Arab and Jewish peoples are descendants of a common
ancestor, Abraham, and inspired, in that spirit, to foster in the Middle
East a reality in which Muslims, Jews, Christians and peoples of all faiths,
denominations, beliefs and nationalities live in, and are committed to, a
spirit of coexistence, mutual understanding and mutual respect;

Recalling the reception held on January 28, 2020, at which President Trump
presented his Vision for Peace, and committing to continuing their efforts
to achieve a just, comprehensive, realistic and enduring solution to the
Israeli-Palestinian conflict;

Recalling the Treaties of Peace between the State of Israel and the Arab
Republic of Egypt and between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom
of Jordan, and committed to working together to realize a negotiated
solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict that meets the legitimate needs
and aspirations of both peoples, and to advance comprehensive Middle East
peace, stability and prosperity;

Emphasizing the belief that the normalization of Israeli and Emirati
relations is in the interest of both peoples and contributes to the cause of
peace in the Middle East and the world;

Expressing deep appreciation to the United States for its profound
contribution to this historic achievement;

Have agreed as follows:

1, Establishment of Peace, Diplomatic Relations and Normalization: Peace,
diplomatic relations and full normalization of bilateral ties are hereby
established between the United Arab Emirates and the State of Israel.

2. General Principles: The Parties shall be guided in their relations by the
provisions of the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of
international law governing relations among States. In particular, they
shall recognize and respect each other's sovereignty and right to live in
peace and security, develop friendly relations of cooperation between them
and their peoples, and settle all disputes between them by peaceful means.

3. Establishment of Embassies: The Parties shall exchange resident
ambassadors as soon as practicable after the signing of this Treaty, and
shall conduct diplomatic and consular relations in accordance with the
applicable rules of international law.

4. Peace and Stability: The Parties shall attach profound importance to
mutual understanding, cooperation and coordination between them in the
spheres of peace and stability, as a fundamental pillar of their relations
and as a means for enhancing those spheres in the Middle East as a whole.
They undertake to take the necessary steps to prevent any terrorist or
hostile activities against each other on or from their respective
territories, as well as deny any support for such activities abroad or
allowing such support on or from their respective territories. Recognizing
the new era of peace and friendly relations between them, as well as the
centrality of stability to the well-being of their respective peoples and of
the region, the Parties undertake to consider and discuss these matters
regularly, and to conclude detailed agreements and arrangements on
coordination and cooperation.

5. Cooperation and Agreements in Other Spheres: As an integral part of their
commitment to peace, prosperity, diplomatic and friendly relations,
cooperation and full normalization, the Parties shall work to advance the
cause of peace, stability and prosperity throughout the Middle East, and to
unlock the great potential of their countries and of the region. For such
purposes, the Parties shall conclude bilateral agreements in the following
spheres at the earliest practicable date, as well as in other spheres of
mutual interest as may be agreed:- Finance and Investment- Civil Aviation-
Visas and Consular Services- Innovation, Trade and Economic Relations

- Healthcare

- Science, Technology and Peaceful Uses of Outer-Space

- Tourism, Culture and Sport

- Energy

- Environment

- Education

- Maritime Arrangements

- Telecommunications and Post

- Agriculture and Food Security

- Water

- Legal Cooperation

Any such agreements concluded before the entry into force of this Treaty
shall enter into effect with the entry into force of this Treaty unless
otherwise stipulated therein. Agreed principles for cooperation in specific
spheres are annexed to this Treaty and form an integral part thereof.

6. Mutual Understanding and Co-existence: The Parties undertake to foster
mutual understanding, respect, co-existence and a culture of peace between
their societies in the spirit of their common ancestor, Abraham, and the new
era of peace and friendly relations ushered in by this Treaty, including by
cultivating people-to-people programs, interfaith dialogue and cultural,
academic, youth, scientific, and other exchanges between their peoples. They
shall conclude and implement the necessary visa and consular services
agreements and arrangements so as to facilitate efficient and secure travel
for their respective nationals to the territory of each other. The Parties
shall work together to counter extremism, which promotes hatred and
division, and terrorism and its justifications, including by preventing
radicalization and recruitment and by combating incitement and
discrimination. They shall work towards establishing a High-Level Joint
Forum for Peace and Co-Existence dedicated to advancing these goals.

7. Strategic Agenda for the Middle East: Further to the Abraham Accords, the
Parties stand ready to join with the United States to develop and launch a
"Strategic Agenda for the Middle East" in order to expand regional
diplomatic, trade, stability and other cooperation. They are committed to
work together, and with the United States and others, as appropriate, in
order to advance the cause of peace, stability and prosperity in the
relations between them and for the Middle East as a whole, including by
seeking to advance regional security and stability; pursue regional economic
opportunities; promote a culture of peace across the region; and consider
joint aid and development programs.

8. Other Rights and Obligations: This Treaty does not affect and shall not
be interpreted as affecting, in any way, the rights and obligations of the
Parties under the Charter of the United Nations. The Parties shall take all
necessary measures for the application in their bilateral relations of the
provisions of the multilateral conventions of which they are both parties,
including the submission of appropriate notification to the depositaries of
such conventions.

9. Respect for Obligations: The Parties undertake to fulfill in good faith
their obligations under this Treaty, without regard to action or inaction of
any other party and independently of any instrument inconsistent with this
Treaty. For the purposes of this paragraph each Party represents to the
other that in its opinion and interpretation there is no inconsistency
between their existing treaty obligations and this Treaty. The Parties
undertake not to enter into any obligation in conflict with this Treaty.
Subject to Article 103 of the Charter of the United Nations, in the event of
a conflict between the obligations of the Parties under the present Treaty
and any of their other obligations, the obligations under this Treaty shall
be binding and implemented. The Parties further undertake to adopt any
legislation or other internal legal procedure necessary in order to
implement this Treaty, and to repeal any national legislation or official
publications inconsistent with this Treaty.

10. Ratification and Entry into Force: This Treaty shall be ratified by both
Parties as soon as practicable in conformity with their respective national
procedures and will enter into force following the exchange of instruments
of ratification.

11. Settlement of Disputes: Disputes arising out of the application or
interpretation of this Treaty shall be resolved by negotiation. Any such
dispute which cannot be settled by negotiation may be referred to
conciliation or arbitration subject to the agreement of the Parties.

12. Registration: This Treaty shall be transmitted to the Secretary-General
of the United Nations for registration in accordance with the provisions of
Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.

Done at Washington, DC, this day Elul 26th, 5780, Muharram 27th, 1442, which
corresponds to 15 September 2020, in the Hebrew, Arabic and English
languages, all texts being equally authentic. In case of divergence of
interpretation, the English text shall prevail.

For the State of Israel: H.E. Benjamin, Netanyahu, Prime Minister

For the United Arab Emirates: H.H. Abdullah bin Zayed Al Nahyan, Minister of
Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation

Witnessed by: H.E. Donald J. Trump, President of the United States of


Pursuant to Article 5 of the Treaty of Peace, Diplomatic Relations and Full
Normalization between the United Arab Emirates and the State of Israel, the
Parties shall conclude bilateral agreements in spheres of mutual interest,
in furtherance of which they have agreed to the following provisions. Such
provisions are annexed to the Treaty and form an integral part thereof.

Finance and Investment

Further to the Agreed Protocol signed between the Parties on September 1,
2020, in Abu Dhabi, the Parties shall cooperate to expeditiously deepen and
broaden bilateral investment relations, and give high priority to concluding
agreements in the sphere of finance and investment, recognizing the key role
of these agreements in the economic development of the Parties and the
Middle East as a whole. The Parties reaffirm their commitment to protecting
investors, consumers, market integrity and financial stability, as well as
maintaining all applicable regulatory standards. Recognizing also their
shared goal to advance regional economic development and the flow of goods
and services, the Parties shall endeavor to promote collaborations on
strategic regional infrastructure projects and shall explore the
establishment of a multilateral working group for the "Tracks for Regional
Peace" project.

Civil Aviation

The Parties acknowledge the importance of ensuring regular direct flights
between Israel and the United Arab Emirates, for passengers and cargo, as an
essential means for developing and promoting their relations. They recognize
as applicable to each other the rights, privileges and obligations provided
for by the multilateral aviation agreements to which they are both a party,
their annexes and any amendments thereof applicable to both Parties,
particularly the 1944 Convention on International Civil Aviation, opened for
signature at Chicago on the seventh day of December 1944, and the 1944
International Air Services Transit Agreement. Accordingly, the Parties shall
as soon as practicable conclude all the necessary agreements and
arrangements governing civil aviation, and consequently work towards
establishing an international air corridor between their two States in
accordance with international law. They shall also reach and implement the
necessary agreements and arrangements with respect to visas and consular
services to facilitate travel for the citizens of both States.


The Parties affirm their mutual desire to promote tourism cooperation
between them as a key component of economic development and of developing
closer people-to-people and cultural ties. To this end, the Parties shall
facilitate the exchange of information through advertisement spots,
published and audiovisual promotional materials, and participation in
tourist fairs. They shall also work together to promote joint tourism
projects and packages between tourist operators so as to enhance tourism
from third States. They shall work towards carrying out reciprocal study
tours in order to increase knowledge in the development, management and
marketing of heritage, cultural and rural tourism with a view to
diversifying and deepening touristic links between them; and endeavor to
utilize national marketing budgets to promote mutual tourism between the

Innovation, Trade and Economic Relations

The Parties shall enhance and expand their cooperation in innovation, trade
and economic relations, so that the dividends of peace are felt across their
societies. Recognizing that the principle of the free and unimpeded flow of
goods and services should guide their relations, as well as the potential
for diversification of bilateral trade opportunities, the Parties shall
cooperate in order to enable favorable conditions for trade, and the
reduction of trade barriers.

Science, Technology and Peaceful Uses of Outer-Space

The Parties acknowledge the important role of science, technology and
innovation in the growth of multiple key sectors and shall strengthen joint
action and mutual cooperation in scientific and technological advancement.
This shall include furthering scientific cooperation and exchange, including
between scientists, research and academic institutions, pursuing the
establishment of joint research and development centers, and exploring the
possibility of joint funding of research and scientific projects in select
fields of mutual interest.

The Parties further express their common interest in establishing and
developing mutually beneficial cooperation in the field of exploration and
use of outer space for peaceful purposes, in a manner consistent with each
Party's respective applicable national laws and international obligations.
Such cooperation may include implementation of joint programs, projects and
activities in the fields of science, space exploration, space related
technologies and education, exchange of experts, information and best
practices, and the promotion of cooperation between their respective space


The Parties acknowledge the importance of protecting, preserving and
improving the environment, and shall promote environmental innovation for
the sustainable development of the region and beyond. The Parties shall
endeavor to cooperate to develop environmental protection strategies on
priority issues, including on biodiversity conservation, marine environment
protection and climate change mitigation and adaptation, and on the possible
establishment of a center for developing pioneering solutions to climate
challenges in arid and semi-arid environments.

Telecommunications and Post

The Parties recognize the necessity of mutually beneficial cooperation for
the continued development of telecommunications, information technologies
and postal services. They take note of the establishment between them of
direct communications services, including telephone lines, and agree to
promote, in accordance with relevant international conventions and
regulations, direct postal exchange, submarine cables and e-commerce
solutions, as well as utilize available satellite systems, fiber optical
communication, and broadcasting services. The Parties will strive to develop
frameworks for innovation in ICT, including advanced fixed and wireless
communications, collaboration on 5G networks, smart cities, and use of ICT
solutions to foster innovation and the creation of best services.


The Parties welcome progress made in cooperation between them regarding the
treatment of, and the development of a vaccine for, the Covid-19 virus, as a
sign of the tremendous potential for cooperation between them in the
healthcare sphere. Recognizing the importance of building ties in the fields
of health and medicine, the Parties shall cooperate, inter alia, on: medical
education, training and simulations, digital health and artificial
intelligence innovation in the health sector, and emergency management and

Agriculture and Food Security

The Parties recognize the great importance of sustainable agricultural
development, recognizing its vital role in addressing food security
concerns, as well as in the preservation of the environment. They shall
cooperate to harness and maximize existing technologies, actively facilitate
new collaborations, and share and develop knowledge, technologies and
innovative approaches in the field of arid agriculture, irrigation
technologies, mariculture techniques in shallow sea water, sustainable
nutritious fish feed production, and seed enhancement in hot and humid


The Parties recognize the critical importance of sustainable water use and
shall cooperate for their mutual benefit to address issues of water supply,
water treatment and management, water security, efficiency, wastewater
management and re-use, as well as water conservation and desalination.


The Parties take note of the strategic importance of the energy sector and
in particular of their need to promote renewable energy, cooperation in the
natural gas field, regional grids, alternative energy and energy security.
They shall advance and develop mutual cooperation in energy projects, share
best practices and discuss policies in energy forums that will help to
promote and unlock the energy potential of the region, coordinating where
appropriate with the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA),
headquartered in Abu Dhabi.

Maritime Arrangements

Each Party shall recognize the right of vessels of the other Party to
innocent passage through its territorial waters in accordance with
international law. Each Party will grant normal access to its ports for
vessels and cargoes of the other Party, as well as vessels and cargoes
destined for or coming from the other Party. Such access shall be granted on
the same terms as generally applicable to vessels and cargoes of other
nations. The Parties shall conclude agreements and arrangements in maritime
affairs, as may be required.

Legal Cooperation

Recognizing the importance of a supporting legal framework for the movement
of people and goods and for fostering a continuous business friendly
environment between them, the Parties shall make best efforts to grant each
other the widest measure of legal cooperation, including, inter alia, in
respect of mutual legal assistance in civil and commercial matters, in
accordance with their national laws and shall endeavor to conclude specific
agreements and arrangements in this sphere.

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